Publication Ethics and Publication Malpractice Statement
At Extrica, the integrity of academic content and publishing process is of a principal importance. The Publication Ethics and Publication Malpractice Statement outlines the best practice principles that are applied to Extrica journals and conference proceedings. These guidelines will be useful to many different groups, including authors, peer reviewers, editors within and outside of Extrica. This Publication Ethics and Publication Malpractice Statement is based on Code of Conduct and Best-Practice Guidelines for Journal Editors (Committee on Publication Ethics, 2011).
1. Research Integrity
Research published by Extrica Journals is expected to abide by the principles within the following Research Integrity Statement:
- honesty in all aspects of research.
- scrupulous care, thoroughness, and excellence in research practice.
- transparency and open communication.
- respect for all participants in research practice.
- accountability both for one's own research integrity and that of others when behaviour falls short of the standards.
In addition to the general principles above, Extrica journals and conference proceedings provide specific guidelines and policies for authors on research integrity and ethics appropriate to their subject matter and discipline.
Anyone who believes that research published by Extrica Journals has not been carried out in line with these guidelines, or the above principles, should raise their concern with the relevant editor or send an email directly to Show Email Address. Concerns will be addressed by following COPE guidelines where possible and/or by escalating the matter to editorial teams if necessary.
2. Editorial Process
Extrica Journals are committed to editorial independence and strive in all cases to prevent this principle from being compromised through competing interests, fear, or any other corporate, business, financial or political influence. Editorial processes do reflect this commitment to editorial independence.
At Extrica Journals there are no discrimination against authors, editors or peer reviewers based on personal characteristics or identity. The commitment to embedding diversity, removing barriers to inclusion, and equity is promoted at every stage of the publishing process. Journals seek and encourage submissions from scholars of diverse backgrounds, including race and ethnicity, gender identity, sexual orientation, nationality, religion, and disability. The same principles adhere to the appointment of individual editors and editorial board members to Extrica Journals.
Editorial decisions on manuscripts submitted to Extrica journals and conference proceedings are made by external academic editors and based on independent peer review reports.
All Extrica Journals provide a public policy and process for considering appeals of editorial decisions. If anyone has any concerns and wishes to appeal or file a complaint, contact Show Email Address.
Abusive behaviour or correspondence is not tolerated towards staff and others involved in the publishing process.
Editorial processes at Extrica journals and conference proceedings are described in detail by Extrica Editorial Policy available at Editorial Policy.
For all parties involved in the process of publishing (the author, the journal editor(s), peer reviewers and the publisher) it is necessary to agree upon standards of expected ethical behavior.
3. Duties of the Editors-in-Chief and the Associate Editor
3.1. Fair play
Submitted manuscripts are evaluated for their intellectual and scientific content without regard to race, gender, sexual orientation, religious belief, ethnic origin, citizenship, or political philosophy of the authors.
The Editor-in-Chief, the handling Associated Editor responsible for the submitted manuscript and any editorial staff must not disclose any information about a submitted manuscript to anyone other than the corresponding author, reviewers, potential reviewers, and the publisher, as appropriate.
3.3. Disclosure and conflicts of interest
Unpublished materials disclosed in a submitted manuscript must not be used in an Editor's own research without the explicit written consent of the author(s). Also, if Editor's have relationships or activities that raise potential conflicts related to work under consideration, then Editors should recuse themselves from editorial decisions. Same applies for other editorial staff members.
3.4. Retractions, Correction Notes and Expressions of Concern
Journal editors will consider retractions, correction notes, or expressions of concern in line with COPE's Retraction Guidelines. If an author is found to have made an error, the journal or the conference proceedings will issue a Correction Note. Retractions are usually reserved for articles that are seriously flawed that their findings or conclusions should not be relied upon.
Extrica participates in Crossmark: a multi-publisher initiative to provide a standard way for readers to locate the current version of a piece of content, view any changes that have occurred, and access additional information about that publication record.
3.5. Publication decisions
The Editor-in-Chief of the journal or the handling Associate Editor is responsible for deciding which of the submitted articles should be published. The Editor-in-Chief and the handling Associate Editor may be guided by the policies of the journal's Editorial Board and constrained by such legal requirements as shall then be in force regarding libel, copyright infringement and plagiarism. The Editor-in-Chief may confer with the handling Associate Editor, other editors or reviewers in making this decision.
4. Responsibilities of peer reviewers
4.1. Contribution to editorial decisions
Peer review assists the Editor-in-Chief and the handling Associate Editor in making editorial decisions and, through the editorial communication with the author, may also assist the author in improving the manuscript.
Any invited referee who feels unqualified to review the research reported in a manuscript or knows that its timely review will be impossible should immediately notify the Editor-in-Chief so that alternative reviewers can be contacted.
Any manuscripts received for review must be treated as confidential documents. They must not be shown to or discussed with others except if authorized by the Editor-in-Chief.
4.4. Standards of objectivity
Reviews should be conducted objectively. Personal criticism of the author is inacceptable. Referees should express their views clearly with appropriate supporting arguments.
4.5. Acknowledgement of sources
Reviewers should identify relevant published work that has not been cited by the authors. Any statement that an observation, derivation, or argument had been previously reported should be accompanied by the relevant citation. A reviewer should also call to the Editor's attention any substantial similarity or overlap between the manuscript under consideration and any other published data of which they have personal knowledge.
4.6. Disclosure and conflict of interest
Privileged information or ideas obtained through peer review must be kept confidential and not used for personal advantage. Reviewers should not consider evaluating manuscripts in which they have conflicts of interest resulting from competitive, collaborative, or other relationships or connections with any of the authors, companies, or institutions connected to the submitted manuscript. Reviewers must disclose any potential conflict of interest to the handling associate editor and recuse themselves from reviewing.
5. Duties of Authors
5.1. Reporting standards
Authors reporting results of original research should present an accurate account of the work performed as well as an objective discussion of its significance. Underlying data should be represented accurately in the manuscript. A paper should contain sufficient detail and references to permit others to replicate the work. Fraudulent or knowingly inaccurate statements constitute unethical behavior and are unacceptable.
5.2. Originality and Plagiarism
The authors should ensure that they have written entirely original works, and if the authors have used the work and/or words of others (Images / Equations / Text / Data / Tools / etc.) that this has been appropriately cited or quoted.
Extrica adheres to the following definition of plagiarism:
- Plagiarism: using someone else's ideas, words, data, or other material produced by them without acknowledgement.
- Self-plagiarism: using own ideas, words, data, or other material produced by them and submitted for publication elsewhere, without an acknowledgement.
- Contract cheating: contracting a third party to provide work, which is then used or submitted as part of own work.
- Collusion: working with others and using the ideas or words of this joint work without acknowledgment or allowing others to use the ideas or words of joint work without acknowledgment.
- Fabrication, falsification or misrepresentation of data, results or other outputs or aspects of research, or presenting or recording such data, etc, as if they were real.
Failure to meet legal, ethical and professional obligations in carrying out research. This includes failure to follow agreed protocol if this failure results in unreasonable risk or harm to humans, other sentient beings, or the environment, and facilitating of misconduct in research by collusion in, or concealment of, such actions by others. It includes any plan or conspiracy to attempt to do any of these things.
Plagiarism can occur in respect to all types of sources and media, including:
- text, illustrations, extended mathematical derivations, computer code, etc.
- material downloaded from websites or drawn from manuscripts or other media.
Plagiarism is not tolerated in any of our publications. All submissions are checked through appropriate plagiarism checking tools, including iThenticate. If plagiarism is discovered in post publication, a detailed investigation will be performed in each individual case and can lead to either Retraction or a Correction Note. Readers, reviewers, and editors are encouraged to raise any suspicions of plagiarism, by emailing Show Email Address.
5.3. Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication
An author should not in general publish manuscripts describing essentially the same research in more than one journal or primary publication. Parallel submission of the same manuscript to more than one journal constitutes unethical publishing behavior and is unacceptable.
Duplicate or redundant publication, or 'self-plagiarism', occurs when a work, or substantial parts of a work, is published more than once by the author(s) of the work without appropriate cross-referencing or justification for the overlap.
A substantial overlap between publications is not supported, unless:
- it is felt that editorially this will strengthen the academic discourse.
- ar approval from the original publication is available.
- a citation of the original source is provided.
The deposition of a preprint on the author's personal website, in an institutional repository, or in a preprint archive shall not be viewed as prior or duplicate publication.
5.4. Acknowledgement of sources
Proper acknowledgment of the work of others must always be given. Authors should also cite publications that have been influential in determining the nature of the reported work.
5.5. Authorship and contributorship
All co-authors must be contributing to the intellectual content of the manuscript. All co-authors are accountable for all aspects of the work and should ensure that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved. The contributor's roles and specific definitions of these roles for authors of Extrica journals and conference proceedings are described in the following table which needs to be filled during the submission of the manuscript:
|Contributor role||Role definition|
|Conceptualization||Ideas; formulation or evolution of overarching research goals and aims.|
|Data Curation||Management activities to annotate (produce metadata), scrub data and maintain research data (including software code, where it is necessary for interpreting the data itself) for initial use and later reuse.|
|Formal Analysis||Application of statistical, mathematical, computational, or other formal techniques to analyze or synthesize study data.|
|Funding Acquisition||Acquisition of the financial support for the project leading to this publication.|
|Investigation||Conducting a research and investigation process, specifically performing the experiments, or data/evidence collection.|
|Methodology||Development or design of methodology; creation of models|
|Project Administration||Management and coordination responsibility for the research activity planning and execution.|
|Resources||Provision of study materials, reagents, materials, patients, laboratory samples, animals, instrumentation, computing resources, or other analysis tools.|
|Software||Programming, software development; designing computer programs; implementation of the computer code and supporting algorithms; testing of existing code components.|
|Supervision||Oversight and leadership responsibility for the research activity planning and execution, including mentorship external to the core team.|
|Validation||Verification, whether as a part of the activity or separate, of the overall replication/reproducibility of results/experiments and other research outputs.|
|Visualization||Preparation, creation and/or presentation of the published work, specifically visualization/data presentation.|
|Writing - Original Draft Preparation||Creation and/or presentation of the published work, specifically writing the initial draft (including substantive translation).|
|Writing - Review and Editing||Preparation, creation and/or presentation of the published work by those from the original research group, specifically critical review, commentary, or revision - including pre- or post-publication stages.|
5.6. Conflict of Interests and Funding
All measures are taken to ensure that any Extrica publication is free from undue influence. Authors submitting a manuscript to Extrica Journals are required to declare any potential conflict of interests that could interfere with the objectivity or integrity of a publication. Conflict of interests may occur in situations that could be perceived to exert an undue influence on the presentation, review, or publication of a piece of work. These may be financial, non-financial, professional, contractual, or personal in nature. Anyone who suspects an undisclosed conflict of interests regarding a work published or under consideration by Extrica should contact Show Email Address.
5.7. Data access, retention, and supportive evidence
The transparency and openness of data, code, and other materials associated with published manuscript is strongly supported. Authors are expected to maintain accurate records of supporting evidence necessary to allow others to understand, verify, and replicate new findings, and to supply or provide access to this supporting evidence, on reasonable request. Where appropriate and where allowed by their employer, funding body or others who might have an interest, the authors are encouraged to:
- deposit evidence in a suitable repository or storage location, for sharing and further use by others.
- describe where the evidence may be found in a Data Availability Statement which authors could include in their publication.
Authors are permitted to submit and publish supplementary materials that are not essential for inclusion or that cannot be accommodated in the main text, but that would be of benefit to the reader.
5.8. The corresponding author's specific responsibilities
- Manuscript correction and proofreading. Handling the revisions and re-submission of revised manuscripts up to the acceptance of the manuscripts.
- Agreeing to and signing the Extrica Author's Statement on behalf of all co-authors.
- Arranging for payment of an APC (article processing charge) where one is required.
- Acting on behalf of all co-authors in responding to queries from all sources post- publication, including questions relating to publishing ethics, reuse of content, or the availability of data, materials, resources etc.
Authors can list anyone who does not meet the intellectual criteria for the authorship in the Acknowledgments section in their publication with permission, to recognise the contributions of anyone who provided some assistance for research or writing, for example.
Any article affiliations should represent the institution(s) at which the research presented was conducted and/or supported and/or approved. Any affiliation should represent the institution(s) with which each author is currently affiliated. All Authors agree that their affiliation information and contact details are presented in the published manuscript.
5.10. Libel, Defamation, and Freedom of Expression
Freedom of expression is critical to Extrica. Publishing false statements that harm the reputation of individuals, groups, or organisations is not supported. Anyone who suspects libel or defamation should contact Show Email Address.
5.11. Research with humans or animals
Research involving humans or animals should be approved by relevant ethics committee(s) and should conform to international ethical and legal standards for research. Authors are expected to respect human participants' right to privacy, and to gain any necessary consent to publish before submitting to Extrica journals. For information on whether authors are required to submit or include evidence regarding the above, contact Show Email Address.
Animals' well-being used for research, education, and testing must be respected by all means. Detailed information should be provided on the ethical treatment of animals in the process of manuscript submission(s). < href="https://arriveguidelines.org">Arrive Guidelines 2.0 checklist should be used when submitting manuscripts if animal research was a part of the investigation.
Researchers from countries not having any legal animal requirements or guidelines should refer to these websites for guidance and help: The Basel Declaration, Association for the study of Animal Behaviour and International Association of Veterinary Editors' Consensus Author Guidelines on Animal Ethics.
When reporting a study that involved the participation of human(s), biological material or their data, authors are obliged to include a statement that clarifies that the study was approved by appropriate institutional and/or national research ethics committee. Authors should be aware to secure informed consent from the individual(s) (or parent or guardian if the participant is a minor or incapable).
Authors must declare what cell lines were used describing the origin of the cell line, including when and from where it was obtained, whether the cell line has been authenticated and by which method. If cells were bought from a life science company the following information needs to be provided: name of the company, cell type, number of cell line, and batch of cells. A statement should be included that an institution or independent ethics committee approved the study and that informed consent was obtained from the donor or next of kin.
Clinical trials are defined as any research study that assigns human participants or groups to one or more health orientated interventions to analyze the effects on health results. The World Health Organization (WHO) defines health interventions as “A health intervention is an act performed for, with or on behalf of a person or population whose purpose is to assess, improve, maintain, promote or modify health, functioning or health conditions” and a health-related result is generally speaking defined as a change in the health of a person or population as an outcome of an intervention.
In order to ensure reporting of patient-orientated trials, authors must register phase 2 to 4 clinical trials in publicly available resources. For instance www.clinicaltrials.gov or any of the main registries that are involved in the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform.
Manuscripts that involve experiments used of human embryos and gametes, human embryonic stem cells and related materials, and clinical applications of stem cells must provide confirmation that all experiments were done in accordance with relevant guidelines and regulations.
The manuscript should have an ethics statement identifying the institutional and/or national research ethics committee (including the title of the ethics committee) approving the experiments and describing any relevant information. Authors should confirm that informed consent was obtained from all recipients and/or donors of cells or tissues. Conditions of donation of materials for research, such as human embryos or gametes should be clearly described. Copies of approval and consent documents could be asked by the Journal.
In deciding whether to publish papers describing modifications of the human germline, the Journal is guided by safety considerations, compliance with applicable regulations, as well as the status of the societal debate on the implications of such modifications for future generations. In case of concerns regarding a particular type of study the authors may seek the advice from the Editor of the Journal.
If the work involves chemicals, procedures or equipment that have any unusual hazards inherent in their use, the authors must clearly identify these in the manuscript.
5.12. Sex and gender reporting
Authors should use the terms sex (biological attribute) and gender (shaped by social and cultural circumstances) respectfully in order to avoid confusion of both terms. Article titles and/or abstracts should clarify what sex(es) the study applies to. Authors should also provide information in the background, whether sex and/or gender differences may be expected; report how sex and/or gender were accounted for in the design of the study; provide disaggregated data by sex and/or gender, where appropriate; and discuss respective results. If a sex and/or gender analysis was not performed, the rationale should be given in the Discussion part.
5.13. Informed Consent
All individual rights should be followed. For example, in studies there's a right to choose what happens with personal data collected, to what individuals have mentioned during a study or interview, as well as to any pictures that were taken. This is significantly important in terms of sensitive people (for instance patients, minors, refugees, etc.) or the use of pictures in vulnerable contexts. Authors will need to ensure written consent before being allowed to include such images.
Information such as birth date, names, identity numbers, biometrical characteristics and similar details of the participants that were studied should not be published unless the information is essential for scholarly purposes and the participant provided written consent for publishing. Under some circumstances consent is not needed to provide when information is anonymized.
For all the studies where human subjects are involved, freely-given, informed consent of participation in the research must be obtained from participants (or their parent or legal guardian in the case of children under 16) and a statement to this effect should be present in the manuscript.
If human transplantation studies are described, Authors must include a statement declaring that no tissues/organs were obtained from prisoners and must also name the institution(s)/clinc(s)/department(s) via which tissues/organs were obtained.
Exceptions when consent is not needed to provide for such type of information:
- X rays, laparoscopic images, brain scans, ultrasound images, pathology slides unless there is a concern about identification of information in which case, authors should obtain consent.
- Reusing of images: If images are being copied from previous publications, the Publisher will take into consideration that publication obtained the relevant information to consent. Authors should provide the relevant attribution for copied images.
5.14. Consent and already available data and/or biologic material
No matter if material is collected from alive or dead patients, they (family or guardian if the decreased has not made a pre-mortem decision) must have provided priorly written consent. The full aspects of confidentialities as well as any wishes requirements from the deceased should be taken into account.
5.15. Privacy, confidentiality and data protection
When biological material is donated for or data is generated as part of a research project authors should take into account, as part of the informed consent process, that the participants are made aware what kind of (personal) data will be processed, how it will be used and for what aim. If data is acquired via biobank/biorepository, Authors should apply a broad consent which allows research participants to consent a broad range of uses of their samples and data which is regarded by research ethics committees as specific enough to be considered informed. However, Authors should always read the specific biorepository/biobank policies in order to make sure that this is the right case.
5.16. Fundamental errors in published works
When an author discovers a significant error or inaccuracy in his/her own published work, it is the author's obligation to promptly notify the journal's Editor-in-Chief or publisher and cooperate with them to either retract the paper or to publish an appropriate Correction Note.
The journals and/or Publisher will investigate following COPE guidelines given that there is suspicion of misbehavior or alleged fraud. If there‘s still valid concerns, the authors will be contacted by e-mail and will be given an opportunity to explain the situation. Respectfully to the situation, the journals and/or Publisher will follow these implementations:
- If the manuscript is still in the process of under consideration, it may be rejected.
- If the manuscript is already published online and/or print:
- A Correction Note may be issued with the manuscript
- An Editor‘s note may be published with the manuscript.
- Or, in the most extreme case, retraction of the manuscript may occur.
5.17. Image Manipulation, Falsification and Fabrication
Where research data are collected or presented as images, modifying these images can sometimes misrepresent the results obtained or their significance. It is recognised that there can be legitimate reasons for modifying images, but authors are expected to avoid modifying images where this leads to the falsification, fabrication, or misrepresentation of their results.
6. Fraudulent Research and Research Misconduct
Any publication found to include fraudulent results will be retracted, or an appropriate Correction Note will be issued.
7. Versions and Adaptations
Extrica publications are distributed in many different global cultural, environmental and economic contexts. We neither modify existing, published content nor originate new materials to meet political or ideological requirements.
We strive to follow COPE's Principles of Transparency and Best Practice in Scholarly Publishing.
9. Integrity of Record
A record of the existence of everything what is published with information (metadata) describing each publication is maintained permanently.
10. Peer Review
Peer review is critical to maintaining the standards of publications.
- All editors are provided with appropriate systems, training, and support to facilitate rigorous, fair, and effective peer review for all our publications.
- All editors and peer reviewers are encouraged to familiarise themselves with and act in accordance with relevant best practice guidelines on peer review. For journal editors and peer reviewers, refer to COPE's Ethical Guidelines for Peer Reviewers.
- Anyone who oversees the peer review process and may recognise warning signs of fraudulent or manipulated peer review, can raise concerns by emailing to Show Email Address.
- All editors and peer reviewers are supported in investigating and acting on any suspected cases of manipulated or fraudulent peer review.
- The confidentiality of all participants in the peer review process is protected where anonymity forms part of that publication's peer review process.
11. Publisher's confirmation
In cases of alleged or proven scientific misconduct, fraudulent publication or plagiarism the publisher, in close collaboration with the Editor-in-Chief, will take all appropriate measures to clarify the situation and to amend the article in question. This includes the prompt publication of a Correction Note or, in the most severe cases, the complete retraction of the affected work.
The Publisher and the Journal do not discriminate on the basis of age, color, religion, creed, disability, marital status, veteran status, national origin, race, gender, genetic predisposition or carrier status, or sexual orientation in its publishing programs, services and activities.