Simulation on metro railway induced vibration. Part I: effect of outofround wheels
Hougui Zhang^{1} , Zhou Ren^{2} , Huijuan Zhang^{3} , Qiang Liu^{4}
^{1, 3, 4}Beijing Municipal Institute of Labour Protection, Beijing, 100054, China
^{2}Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing, 100044, China
^{1}Corresponding author
Vibroengineering PROCEDIA, Vol. 29, 2019, p. 130135.
https://doi.org/10.21595/vp.2019.21153
Received 1 November 2019; accepted 7 November 2019; published 28 November 2019
43rd International Conference on Vibroengineering in Greater Noida (Delhi), India, November 2830, 2019
This paper discussed the effect of outofround wheels on simulation of rail dynamic behavior in the frequency range for ground vibration and groundborne noise. A traintrack interaction model was built by software Simpack and Abaqus. The input roughness was measured from a worn wheel and was applied moving on perfect smooth rail surface in different train speeds. Simulation results indicated that outofround wheel would affect the calculation result that could not be neglected, as the affected frequency range would be lower enough to influence the ground vibration (180 Hz) and groundborne noise (16250 Hz).
 Only considered the Outofround wheel moving on perfect smooth rail surface
 Outofround wheel would result in dramatic influence on simulations of ground vibration (1080Hz) induced by railway system
 The minimal affected frequency by OOR wheel was related to the wavelength at 1/2 wheel circumference
Keywords: railway induced vibration, outofround wheels, and acoustic roughness.
1. Introduction
Ground vibration from trains is an increasingly important environmental issue. It manifests itself in two ways: low frequency vibration in the range 180 Hz is perceived by line side residents as wholebody feel able vibration, whereas higher frequency vibration in the range 16250 Hz is radiated as sound inside buildings and is known as groundborne noise [1, 2].
During the last decades, many different theoretical models are available to simulate the dynamic behavior of railway tracks, which plays an important role on the generation of vibration and rolling noise [35]. In these models, Hertz wheel/rail contact model was common used and irregularities between wheelrail were considered as the excitation element. However, a great difficulty in practice is to find appropriate values for irregularities despite them are so important that cannot be ignored. when calculate the structures subjected the moving loads from railway trains, it would be sufficient using irregularities which was simplify generated from functions of power spectrum density (PSD) summarized from US or Germany railway main lines. But a more comprehensive understanding of the rolling noise and vibration excitation mechanism now requires the irregularities to be defined in high frequency range [6]. The deterioration of the running surface, such as corrugated rail and outofround wheels, was defined as ‘acoustic roughness’ which was associated with high frequency vibration and rolling noise induced by railway system.
In order to direct the maintenance strategy of acoustic rail grinding and wheel reprofile, it is necessary to establish a relationship between rail dynamic behavior and deterioration of the running surface. This paper described the simulation model briefly and calculated the rail dynamic behavior in high frequency range, considering the effect of outofround wheels moving on perfect smooth rail surface in different train speeds. A subsequent paper would take the effect of corrugated rail into consideration.
2. Measurement of outofround wheel
Wheel irregularities were measured using Calipri Prime (Fig. 1), which uses laser light section technology, so a camera/laser unit in the measurement device records the flange profile of the wheels without having to manually attach it to the wheel profile.
Measurement was conducted in rolling stock maintenance yard. The redial/axial runout data was captured from 48 worn out wheels and diameter difference was summarized as the surface irregularities (Fig. 2) and 1/3 octave wavelength spectrum was shown in Fig. 3.
Fig. 1. Out of round measurement
Fig. 2. Surface irregularities of wheel profile
Fig. 3. 1/3 octave wavelength of outofround wheel
3. Traintrack interaction model
The traintrack interaction model was built by software Simpack and Abaqus. Basic input data was shown in Table 1.
In the simulation model, the vehicle part was considered as a dynamics of Multibody system. A model of common used metro train in Beijing was therefore built using the wheel/rail module of SIMPACK software.
Fig. 4. Vehicle model using SIMPACK software
In the simulation model, the track part was considered its elastic behavior. The finite element model was built for a common used DTVI2 track system in Beijing using ABAQUS software.
The wheelrail contact adopt SIMPACK default model (Fig. 6), using Hertz contact ellipse and simplified nolinear theory (J. J. Kalker).
Fig. 5. Finite element track model using ABAQUS software
Table 1. The input data for simulation
Item  Value  unit 
Length of train  12.6  m 
Length of bogie  2.3  m 
Mass of train  43000  kg 
Mass of bogie  3600  kg 
Mass of wheelset  1700  kg 
Diameter of wheel  840  mm 
Type of rail  GB60  
Stiffness of fastening system  20  kN/mm 
Fig. 6. Wheelrail contact
4. Calculation result
In order to keep as much wavelength information as possible, unprocessed raw data would be better used to indicate the contribution of outofround wheel on the train induced vibration simulation. Therefore, although the acoustic roughness of 48 wheels were measured before and after reprofile, comparison was still carried out between one worn wheel selected in random and a perfect round default wheel from SIMPACK software.
4.1. Time history and frequency spectrum
Typical calculation results were focused on the rail vibration velocity as which was already found close related to passby rolling noise. In this paper, time history and frequency spectrum were shown in Fig. 7 and Fig. 8.
Fig. 7. Time history of rail vibration velocity at 60 km/h speed
Fig. 8. Frequency spectrum of rail vibration velocity at 60 km/h speed
From Fig. 7 two bogies with four wheels were clearly distinguished in the passby time history. The dynamic response of rail was obviously different for the worn wheels and the perfect round wheels. It is clear that the outofround wheel resulted in stronger rail vibration. After FFT analysis, the frequency spectrum (See Fig. 8) was indicated that the vibration were not effected in low frequency range (< 12.5 Hz) while dramatic stronger vibration occurs in higher frequency range (> 12.5 Hz).
4.2. Effect of train speed
Further calculations were conducted in different cases, considering the train moving at 60 km/h, 90 km/h and 120 km/h. 1/3 octave band vibration response were recorded and analyzed in Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. 1/3 octave band vibration for different train speeds
From Fig. 9, it indicated that:
1) The outofround wheel had an obvious effect on the simulation result in higher frequency range;
2) The passby rail vibration velocity showed a similar phenomenon, that there is a minimal affected frequency, from which the simulation result was seams not influenced by outof round wheels.
3) When considering the relationship between train speed and the typical frequency (Eq. (1)), the minimal affected frequency was related to the wavelength at 0.5 time of wheel circumference:
5. Conclusions
Based on the above presented simulation results, interesting findings could be summarized as following:
1) In simulations model on train induced vibration, outofround wheel would affect the calculation result that could not be neglected, as the affected frequency range would be lower enough to influence the ground vibration (180 Hz) and groundborne noise (16250 Hz).
2) The minimal affected frequency was related to the wavelength, and which value approximately equal to half of the wheel circumference.
Acknowledgements
This work was under the support of Beijing Natural Science Foundation (No. 3184047), Beijing Academy of Science and Technology Funds (No. OTP2018002) and Beijing Public Finance innovation project in 2018 (PXM2018178304_000007).
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